I had a couple of requests for a summary of tests for ions and functional groups. There are series of standard common tests but any reaction in the syllabus that involves an observable change could be used as a ‘test’ to distinguish between two compounds.
The standard tests can be found here in Practical Guide This is not a list of every reaction that could be used distinguish between compounds though. Almost all the group 2 and group 7 reactions can be used.
How would you distinguish these pairs of compounds?
1. KF (aq) and KCl(aq)
2. KNO3 and AgNO3
3. sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate
4. HNO3 and H2SO4
5. NaCl (aq) and KBr (aq)
6. AgCl (s) and AgI (s)
7. magnesium nitrate and barium nitrate
8. KCl(s) and KI (s) using only conc sulphuric acid
9 propanone and propanal
10. propanoic acid and hexane
11. cyclohexane and cyclohexene
12. butan-2-ol and 2-methylpropan-2-ol